Guru Granth Sahib

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Fast Facts
Other Names and Nicknames: 
Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Sikhism, Sant Mat, Surat Shabd Yoga
Main Countries of Activity: 
Date of Birth: 
20 October 1708
Place of Birth: 
Nanded, Maharashtra, India
In His/Her Body ("alive"): 


The Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, gurū granth sāhib), or ,Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scripture, and the final Guru, of the Sikhs.

Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), the tenth of the Sikh Gurus, affirmed the sacred text Adi Granth as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus, and elevating the text to Guru Granth Sahib. From that point on, the text remained not only the holy scripture of the Sikhs, but is also regarded by them as the living embodiment of the Ten Gurus. The role of Guru Granth Sahib, as a source or guide of prayer, is pivotal in worship in Sikhism.

The Adi Granth was first compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606), from hymns of the first five Sikh Gurus and other great saints of the Hindu and Muslim traditions. The original scribe of the Adi Granth was Bhai Gurdas and later Bhai Mani Singh. After the demise of the tenth Sikh Guru many handwritten copies were prepared for distribution by Baba Deep Singh. The 'Guru Granth Sahib' is a voluminous text of 1430 pages, compiled and composed during the period of Sikh Gurus, from 1469 to 1708. It is compiled in the form of hymns written in praise of God, which describe what God is like and the right way to live. Written in the Gurmukhi script, it is written predominantly in archaic Punjabi but includes occasional use of other languages including Braj, Punjabi, Khariboli (Hindi), Sanskrit, regional dialects, and Persian. Written in the Gurmukhi script, the compositions in Sri Guru Granth Sahib are a melange of archaic Punjabi and various other dialects. The various dialects used are often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha. The languages used include Lehndi dialect of Punjabi, regional Prakrits, Apabhramsa, Sanskrit, Hindi languages (Brajbhasha, Old Hindi, Awadhi etc.), Sindhi, and Persian.


Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib to be the spiritual guide for the whole mankind, for all generations to come, and it plays a central role in guiding the Sikhs way of day to day living and ritual life. The place of the Guru Granth Sahib in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles or beliefs. The first is that the text within the Adi Granth is divine revelation, hence it cannot be changed, and the second is that all answers regarding religion and morality can be discovered within the text. The hymns and teachings contained in the Sikh holy book are called Gurbani or "Word of the Guru" and sometimes Dhurbani or "Word of God". Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word is the Guru, i.e. that technique, that method, that divine wisdom which uplifts one from the vicies that he experiences in day to day living. Because the scripture inherited this authority from Sikh Gurus, it is called Guru Granth, meaning "Guru Book".

The work of the numerous holy men who contributed to the Guru Granth Sahib is collectively referred to as Bhagat Bani or "Word of Devotees". These saints belonged to different social and religious backgrounds, including Hindus and Muslims, cobblers and even untouchables. Although the Sikh Bhagats(wrongly) are not accorded the status of Guru in Sikhism, their work is equally revered as that of Sikh Gurus and no distinction is made between the work of a Sikh Bhagat and a Sikh Guru. The essence of these doctrines is that the Guru Granth Sahib, which contains the complete teachings of the Sikh Gurus, is the sole and final successor of the line of Gurus. Anyone claiming the status of living Guru is considered a heretic.

Pro Opinions

Holy book of Sikhism


Guru Granth Sahib has been bookish compilation of the divine songs, raags etc.