Varaha Upanishad ,part-1

madan_gautam's picture

Average: 2.8 (5 votes)

E-Text Source:

Varaha Upanishad
Translated by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar

Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together;
May we work conjointly with great energy,
May our study be vigorous and effective;
May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

The great sage Ribhu performed penance for twelve Deva (divine) years. At the end of the time, the Lord appeared before him in the form of a boar. He said: “Rise, rise and choose your boon”. The sage got up and having prostrated himself before him said: “O Lord, I will not, in my dream, wish of thee those things that are desired by the worldly. All the Vedas, Shastras, Itihasas and all the hosts of other sciences, as well as Brahma and all the other Devas, speak of emancipation as resulting from a knowledge of thy nature. So impart to me that science of Brahman which treats of thy nature.”
Then the boar-shaped Bhagavan (Lord) said:
1. Some disputants hold that there are twenty-four Tattvas (principles) and some thirty-six, whilst others maintain that there are ninety-six.
2. I shall relate them in their order. Listen with an attentive mind. The organs of sense are five, viz., ear, skin, eye and others.
3. The organs of action are five, viz., mouth, hand, leg and others. Pranas (vital airs) are five; sound and other (viz., rudimentary principles) are five.
4. Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankara are four; thus those that know Brahman know these to be the twenty-four Tattvas.
5. Besides these, the wise hold the quintuplicated elements to be five, viz., earth, water, fire, Vayu and Akasa;
6. The bodies to be three, viz., the gross, the subtle and the Karana or causal; the states of consciousness to be three, viz., the waking, the dreaming and the dreamless sleeping.
7-8. The Munis know the total collection of Tattvas to be thirty-six (coupled with Jiva). With these Tattvas, there are six changes, viz., existence, birth, growth, transformation, decay and destruction.
9. Hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, old age and death are said to be the six infirmities.
10. Skin, blood, flesh, fat, marrow and bones are said to be the six sheaths. Passion, anger, avarice, delusion, pride and malice are the six kinds of foes.
11. Vishva, Taijasa and Prajna are the three aspects of the Jiva. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are the three Gunas (qualities).
12. Prarabdha, Sanchita and Agamin are the three Karmas. Talking, lifting, walking, excreting and enjoying are the five actions (of the organs of action);
13. And there are also thought, certainty, egoism, compassion, memory (functions of Manas, etc.,), complacency, sympathy and indifference;
14. Dik (the quarters), Vayu, Sun, Varuna, Ashvini Devas, Agni, Indra, Upendra and Mrityu (death); and then the moon, the four-faced Brahma, Rudra, Kshetrajna and Ishvara.
15-16. Thus these are the ninety-six Tattvas. Those that worship, with devotion, me of the form of boar, who am other than the aggregate of these Tattvas and am without decay are released from Ajnana and its effects and become Jivanmuktas.
17. Those that know these ninety-six Tattvas will attain salvation in whatever order of life they may be, whether they have matted hair or are of shaven head or have (only) their tuft of hair on. There is no doubt of this.”
Thus ends the first Chapter of Varaha Upanishad.

1. The great Ribhu (again) addressed the Lord of Lakshmi of the form of boar thus: “O Lord, please initiate me into the supreme Brahma-Vidya (or science).”
2-3. Then the Lord who removes the miseries of his devotees being thus questioned, answered thus: “Through (the right observance of) the duties of one’s own caste and orders of life, through religious austerities and through the pleasing of the Guru (by serving him rightly), arise to persons the four, Vairagya, etc. They are the discrimination of the eternal from the non-eternal; indifference to the enjoyments of this and the other worlds;
4-5(a). The acquisition of the six virtues, Sama, etc., and the longing after liberation. These should be practised. Having subdued the sensual organs and having given up the conception of ‘mine’ in all objects, you should place your consciousness of ‘I’ in (or identify yourself with) me, who am the witness Chaitanya (consciousness).
5(b)-7(a). To be born as a human being is difficult – more difficult it is to be born as a male being – and more so is it to be born as a Brahmana. Even then, if the fool does not cognise through the hearing, etc., of Vedanta, the true nature of the Sachchidananda (of Brahman) that is all-pervading and that is beyond all caste and orders of life, when will he obtain Moksha?
7(b)-8. I alone am happiness. There is none other. If there is said to be another, then it is not happiness. There is no such things as love, except on my account. The love that is on account of me is not natural to me. As I am the seat of supreme love, that ‘I am not’ is not.
9. He who is sought after by all, saying “I should become such”, is myself, the all-pervading. How can non-light affect Atman, the self-shining which is no other than the light whence originates the words ‘I am not light’.
10-12(a). My firm conviction is whoever knows for certain that (Atman) which is self-shining and has itself no basis (to rest upon), is one of Vijnana. The universe, Jiva, Ishvara, Maya and others do not really exist, except my full Atman.
12(b)-13(a). I have not their characteristics, Karma which has Dharana and other attributes and is of the form of darkness and Ajnana is not fit to touch (or affect) me, who am Atman, the self-resplendent.
13(b)-14(a). That man who sees (his) Atman which is all-witness and is beyond all caste and orders of life as of the nature of Brahman, becomes himself Brahman.
14(b)-15(a). Whoever sees, through the evidence of Vedanta, this visible universe as the Supreme Seat which is of the form of light, attains Moksha at once.
15(b)-16(a). When that knowledge which dispels the idea that this body (alone) is Atman, arises firmly in one’s mind as was before the knowledge that this body (alone) is Atman, then that person, even though he does not desire Moksha, gets it.
16(b)-17(a). Therefore how will a person be bound by Karma, who always enjoys the bliss of Brahman which has the characteristics of Sachchidananda and which is other than Ajnana ?
17(b)-18. Persons with spiritual eyes see Brahman, that is the witness of the three states that has the characteristics of be-ness, wisdom and bliss, that is the underlying meaning of the words ‘Thou’ (Tvam) and ‘I’ (Aham) and that is untouched by all the stains.
19. As a blind man does not see the sun that is shining, so an ignorant person does not see (Brahman). Prajnana alone is Brahman. It has truth and Prajnana as its characteristics.
20. By thus cognising Brahman well, a person becomes immortal. One who knows his own Atman as Brahman, that is bliss and without duality and Gunas (qualities) and that is truth and absolute consciousness is not afraid of anything.
21. That which is consciousness alone which is all-pervading, which is eternal, which is all-full, which is of the form of bliss and which is indestructible, is the only true Brahman.
22-23(a). It is the settled determination of Brahma-Jnanis that there is naught else but that. As the world appears dark to the blind and bright to those having good eyes, so this world full of manifold miseries to the ignorant is full of happiness to the wise.
23(b)-24(a). In me, of the form of boar, who am infinite and the Bliss of absolute Consciousness, if there is the conception of non-dualism, where then is bondage ? And who is the one to be emancipated ?
24(b)-25(a). The real nature of all embodied objects is ever the absolute Consciousness. Like the pot seen by the eyes, the body and its aggregates are not (viz., do not really exist).
25(b)-26. Knowing, as Atman, all the locomotive and fixed worlds that appear as other than Atman, meditate upon them as ‘It I am’. Such a person then enjoys his real nature. There is no other to be enjoyed than one-Self.
27. If there is anything that is, then Brahman alone has that attribute. One who is perfect in Brahma-Jnana, though he always sees this established universe, does not see it other than his Atman.
28-30. By cognising clearly my form, one is not trammelled by Karma. He is an undaunted person who by his own experience cognises as his own real nature all (the universe and Brahman) that is without the body and the organs of sense – that is the all-witness – that is the one noumenal Vijnana, that is the blissful Atman (as contrasted with Jivatma or the lower self) and that is the self-resplendent. He is one that should be known as ‘I’ (myself). O Ribhu, may you become He.
31. After this, there will be never any experience of the world. Thereafter there will always be the experience of the wisdom of one’s own true nature. One who has this known fully Atman has neither emancipation nor bondage.
32. Whoever meditates, even for one Muhurta (48 minutes) through the cognition of one’s own real form, upon Him who is dancing as the all-witness, is released from all bondage.
33. Prostrations – prostrations to me who am in all the elements, who am the Chidatma (viz., Atman of the nature of wisdom) that is eternal and free and who am the Pratyagatman.
34-35. O Devata, you are I. I am you. Prostrations on account of myself and yourself who are infinite and who are Chidatma, myself being the supreme Isha (Lord) and yourself being Shiva (of a beneficent nature). What should I do ? Where should I go ? What should I reject ?
36. (Nothing, because) the universe is filled by me as with the waters on the universal deluge. Whoever gives up (fondness) love of the external, love of the internal and love of the body and thus gives up all associations, is merged in me. There is no doubt about it.
37. That Paramahamsa (ascetic) who, though living in the world, keeps aloof from human congregation as from serpent, who regards a beautiful woman as a (living) corpse and the endless sensual objects as poison and who has abandoned all passion and is indifferent towards all objects is no other than Vasudeva, (viz.,) myself.
38. This is Satya (Truth). This is nothing but truth. It is truth alone that is now said. I am Brahman, the truth. There is naught else but I.
39. (The word) ‘Upavasa’ (lit., dwelling near) signifies the dwelling near (or union) of Jivatma and Paramatman and not (the religious observance as accepted by the worldly of) emaciating the body through fasts.
40. To the ignorant, what is the use of the mere drying up of the body ? By beating about the hole of a snake, can we be said to have killed the big snake within.
41. A man is said to attain Paroksha (indirect) wisdom when he knows (theoretically) that there is Brahman; but he is said to attain Sakshatkara (direct cognition) when he knows (or realises) that he is himself Brahman.
42. When a Yogin knows his Atman to be the Absolute, then he becomes a Jivanmukta.
43. To Mahatmas, to be always in the state ‘I am Brahman’ conduces to their salvation. There are two words for bondage and Moksha. They are ‘mine’ and ‘not mine’.
44. Man is bound by ‘mine’, but he is released by ‘not mine’. He should abandon all the thoughts relating to externals and so also with references to internals. O Ribhu, having given up all thoughts, you should rest content (in your Atman) ever.”
45. The whole of the universe is caused through Sankalpa alone. It is only through Sankalpa that the universe manifests. Having abandoned the universe, which is of the form of Sankalpa and having fixed your mind upon the Nirvikalpa (one which is changeless), meditate upon my abode in your heart.
46. O most intelligent being, pass your time in meditating upon me, glorifying me in songs, talking about me to one another and thus devoting yourself entirely to me as the Supreme.
47. Whatever is Chit (consciousness) in the universe is only Chinmatra. This universe is Chinmaya only. You are Chit. I am Chit; contemplate upon the worlds also as Chit.
48-49(a). Make the desires nil. Always be without any stain. How then can the bright lamp of Atmic Vijnana arising through the Vedas be affected by the Karma arising from the ignorance of the actor and the agent ?
49(b)-50(a). Having given up not-Atman and being in the world unaffected by it, delight only in the Chinmatra within, ever intent on the One.
50(b)-51(a). As the Akasa of the pot and that of the house are both located in the all-pervading Akasa, so the Jivas and Ishvara are only evolved out of me, the Chidakasa (the one Akasa of universal consciousness).
51(b)-52(a). So that which did not exist before the evolution of Atmas (Jiva) (and Ishvara) and that which is rejected at the end (viz., universal deluge) is called Maya by Brahma-Jnanis through their discrimination.
52(b)-53(a). Should Maya and its effects (the universe) be annihilated, there is no state of Ishvara, there is no state of Jiva. Therefore like the Akasa without its vehicle, I am the immaculate and Chit.
53(b)-54. The creation, sentient as well as non-sentient from Ikshana (thinking) to Pravesha (entry) of those having the forms of Jivas and Ishvara is due to the creation (or illusion) of Ishvara; while the Samsara (worldly existence) from the waking state to salvation is due to the creation of Jiva.
55. So the Karmas ordained in the sacrifice (called) Trinachaka (so called after Nachiketas of Katha Upanishad) to Yoga are dependent upon the illusion of Ishvara; while (the systems from) Lokayata (atheistical system) to Sankhya rest on the illusion of Jiva.
56. Therefore aspirants after salvation should never make their heads enter into the field of controversy regarding Jiva and Ishvara. But with an undisturbed mind, Tattvas of Brahman should be investigated.
57. Those who do not cognise the Tattva of the secondless Brahman are all deluded persons only. Whence (then) is salvation to them ? Whence then is happiness (to them) in this universe ?
58. What if they have the thoughts of the superiority and inferiority (of Ishvara and Jiva) ? Will sovereignty and mendicancy (experienced by a person) in the dreaming state affect him in his waking state ?
59. When Buddhi is absorbed in Ajnana, then it is termed, by the wise, sleep. Whence then is sleep to me who have not Ajnana and its effects ?
60. When Buddhi is in full bloom, then it is said to be the Jagrat (waking state). As I have no changes, etc., there is no waking state to me.
61. The moving about of Buddhi in the subtle Nadis constitutes the dreaming state. In me without the act of moving about, there is no dreaming.
62. Then at the time of Sushupti when all things are absorbed, enveloped by Tamas, he then enjoys the highest bliss of his own nature in an invisible state.
63. If he sees everything as Chit without any difference, he alone is an actual Vijnani. He alone is Shiva. He alone is Hari. He alone is Brahma.
64. This mundane existence which is an ocean of sorrow, is nothing but a long-lived dream, or an illusion of the mind or a long-lived reign of the mind. From rising from sleep till going to bed, the one Brahman alone should be contemplated upon.
65. By causing to be absorbed this universe which is but a superimposition, the Chitta partakes of my nature. Having annihilated all the six powerful enemies, through their destruction become the non-dual One like the scent-elephant.
66. Whether the body perishes now or lasts the age of moon and stars, what matters it to me having Chit alone as my body ? What matters it to the Akasa in the pot, whether it (the pot) is destroyed now or exists for a long time.
67. While the Slough of a serpent lies cast off lifeless in its hole, it (the serpent) does not evince any affection towards it.
68. Likewise the wise do not identify themselves with their gross and subtle bodies. If the delusive knowledge (that the universe is real) with its cause should be destroyed by the fire of Atma-Jnana, the wise man becomes bodiless, through the idea ‘It (Brahman) is not this; It is not this’.
69. Shastras, the knowledge of reality (of the universe) perishes. Through direct perception of truth, one’s fitness for action (in this universe) ceases. With the cessation of Prarabdha (the portion of the past Karma which is being enjoyed in this life), the destruction of the manifestation (of the universe) takes place. Maya is thus destroyed in a three-fold manner.
70. If within himself no identification (of Jiva) with Brahman takes place, the state (of the separateness) of Jiva does not perish. If the non-dual one is truly discerned, then all affinities (for objects) cease.
71. With the cessation of Prarabdha (arising from the cessation of affinities), there is that of the body. Therefore it is certain that Maya perishes thus entirely. If it is said that all the universe is, that Brahman alone is that is of the nature of Sat.
72. If it is said that the universe shines, then it is Brahman alone that shines. (The mirage of) all the water in an oasis is really no other than the oasis itself. Through inquiry of one’s Self, the three worlds (above, below and middle) are only of the nature of Chit.
73. In Brahman, which is one and alone, the essence of whose nature is absolute consciousness and which is remote from the differences of Jiva, Ishvara and Guru, there is no Ajnana. Such being the case, where then is the occasion for the universe there ? I am that Brahman which is all full.
74. While the full moon of wisdom is robbed of its lustre by the Rahu (one of the two nodes of the moon) of delusion, all actions such as the rites of bathing, alms-giving and sacrifice performed during the time of eclipse are all fruitless.
75. As salt dissolved in water becomes one, so if Atman and Manas become identified, it is termed Samadhi.
76. Without the grace of a good (perfect) guru, the abandonment of sensual objects is very difficult of attainment; so also the perception of (divine) truth and the attainment of one’s true state.
77. Then the state of being in one’s own self shines of its own accord in a Yogin in whom Jnana-Sakti has dawned and who has abandoned all Karmas.
78. The (property of) fluctuation is natural to mercury and mind. If either mercury is bound (or consolidated) or mind is bound (or controlled), what then on this earth cannot be accomplished ?
79. He who obtains Murchchha cures all diseases. The dead are brought to life again. He who has bound (his mind or mercury) is able to move in the air. Therefore mercury and mind confer upon one the state of Brahman.
80. The master of Indriyas (the organs) is Manas (mind). The master of Manas is Prana. The master of Prana is Laya (absorption Yoga). Therefore Laya-Yoga should be practised.
81. To the Yogins, Laya(-Yoga) is said to be without actions and changes. This Laya (absorption) of mind which is above speech and in which one has to abandon all Sankalpas and to give up completely all actions, should be known through one’s own (experience).
82. As an actress, though subject (or dancing in harmony) to music, cymbals and other musical instruments of time, has her mind intent upon he protection of the pot on her head, so the Yogin, though intent for the time being upon the hosts of objects, never leaves off the mind contemplating on Brahman.
83. The person who desires all the wealth of Yoga should, after having given up all thoughts, practise with a subdued mind concentration on Nada (spiritual sound) alone.”
Thus ends the second Chapter of Varaha Upanishad.

E-Text Source: