PANCHADASI--- part 33

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E text source- 61.The Vedic texts, such as ‘Before the creation Brahman alone existed’, give indirect knowledge of Brahman; but the text ‘That thou art’ gives direct knowledge.
62. When a man knows himself to be Brahman, his knowledge does not vary whether in the beginning, middle or end. This is direct knowledge.
63. The sage Bhrigu, in ancient times, acquired indirect knowledge of Brahman by reflecting on Brahman as the cause of the origin, sustenance and dissolution of the universe. He acquired direct knowledge by differentiating the Self from the five sheaths.
64. Though Varuna, father of Bhrigu, did not teach him by means of the text ‘That thou art’, he taught him the doctrine of the five sheaths and left him to his discriminative enquiry.
65. Bhrigu considered carefully the nature of the food-sheath, the vital-sheath and so forth. He saw in the bliss-sheath the indications of Brahman and concluded: ‘I am Brahman’.
66. The Shruti first speaks of the nature of Brahman as truth, knowledge and infinity. It then describes the Self hidden in the five sheaths.
67. Indra acquired indirect knowledge of Brahman by studying Its attributes. He then went to his teacher four times with a view to gaining direct knowledge of the Self.
68. In the Aitareya Upanishad an indirect knowledge of Brahman is imparted by such texts as ‘There was only Atman before creation’. The Upanishad then describes the process of superimposition and negating it shows that consciousness is Brahman.
69. An indirect knowledge of Brahman by the intellect can be gained from other Shruti passages also; but direct knowledge is achieved by meditating on the great Sayings of the Shruti.
70. In Vakyavritti it is said that the great Sayings are intended to give direct knowledge of Brahman. There is no doubt about this fact.
71. “In ‘That thou art’ ‘thou’ denotes the consciousness which is limited or circumscribed by the adjunct the inner organ and which is the object of the idea and word ‘I’.”
72. “The (absolute) consciousness conditioned by the primeval ignorance, Maya, which is the cause of the universe, is all-knowing etc., and can be known indirectly and whose nature is truth, knowledge and infinity, is indicated by the word ‘That’.”
73. “The qualities of being mediately and immediately known and those of existence with a second and absolute oneness are incompatible on the part of one and the same substance. An explanation by implication or what is called an indirectly expressed meaning has, therefore, to be resorted to.”
74. “In sentences like ‘That thou art’ only the logical rule of partial elimination is to be applied, as in the terms of ‘that is this, not others’.” (i.e., In ‘This is that Devadatta’ we negate the attributes of time and place, both present and past and take into account only the person himself. Similarly, in the text ‘That thou art’ we negate the conflicting attributes such as the omniscience and the limited knowledge which characterise Ishvara and Jiva respectively and take into account only the immutable consciousness.)
75. The relation between the two substantives (‘thou’ and ‘that’) should not be taken as that of one qualifying the other or of mutual qualification, but of complete identity, of absolute homogeneity. That is, the meaning of the expression, according to competent persons is “what is ‘thou’ is wholly and fully ‘that’ and that which is ‘that’ is wholly and fully ‘thou’” – both the terms indicate absolute homogeneous consciousness.