PANCHADASI--- part 14

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E text source- 40. The demonstrative pronoun ‘this’ is common to such diverse perceptions as ‘This is silver’, ‘This is cloth’ and so forth. Similarly, the word ‘self’ is applied to all three persons, first, second and third ‘I’, ‘you’ and ‘he’.
41. (Doubt): The concept ‘I’ (egoity) may be different from the concept of the Self (Atman), but what has this to do with Kutastha ? (Reply): The word ‘self’ denotes Kutastha and vice versa.
42. (Doubt): ‘Self’ merely excludes the idea of another and does not say anything about Kutastha. (Reply): This ‘exclusion of others’ is the ‘Self’ of Kutastha. So exclusion is in favour of our idea.
43. People ordinarily use Self and Atman as synonymous terms; and so both terms are never used together. In fact each of these terms excludes the idea of ‘another’.
44. (Doubt): We often use such expressions as ‘The pot itself does not know’. Hence the word ‘Self’ is applied to an inanimate object. (Reply): Such language is used because Atman is the basis of the inanimate objects also.
45. It is not the immutable Kutastha or Atman which makes the difference between the animate and the inanimate; it is the Jiva, the reflection of Kutastha in the intellect, which makes the difference.
46. Just as the conscious Jiva is created by illusion based on Kutastha, even so, on it the inanimate objects are created by Avidya.
47. (Doubt): Like the word ‘Self’ the words ‘this’ and ‘that’ can be applied to all persons, ‘I’ and ‘he’, etc. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the objects denoted by ‘this’ and ‘that’ are also the Atman.
48. (Reply): ‘This’ and ‘that’ do not refer only to ‘I’ ‘you’ and ‘he’ (as distinct entities), but also to Atman, which is the common element in them all. They are like ‘correctness’, ‘incorrectness’, etc., not synonymous with Atman, (because they are of wider denotation.)
49. Besides, the ideas of ‘this’ and ‘that’ the ‘Self’ and ‘the other’ ‘you’ and ‘I’ are opposite pairs it is well known in society. There is no doubt about that.
50. The opposite of ‘the other’ is the Self, which is the same as the Kutastha. The opposite of ‘you’, however, is ‘I’, which is the egoism, the Jiva, which is superimposed on Kutastha.
51. As the distinction between ‘silver’ and ‘this’ is clear, so also the difference between ‘I’ and ‘Self’. But the people in the grip of delusion identify ‘I’ with the immutable Self.
52. That the superimposition causing the identity of ‘I’ and ‘Self’ is caused by nescience has already been treated. When this nescience is negated, its effect is also terminated.
53. The veiling of the real nature of the Self and the identity superimposition, are caused by nescience, and they are destroyed when nescience is negated. But so long as the fructifying Karma continues, the mind and body, the effects of illusory projection of nescience, continue.
54. The logicians hold that when the material cause of an object has been destroyed its effect continues to appear for the next moment. Similarly why cannot the body of a knower of truth persist for some time when its cause, the nescience, has been destroyed ?
55. According to the logicians the cloth keeps its form for the next second – the threads (its material cause) that last for a few days are destroyed. On the same reasoning, the body may persist for a proportionately long time when its cause, the ignorance of countless ages, is destroyed.
56. (Doubt): The logicians have assumed the truth of this theory without any proof. (Reply): We assume it on the ground of Shruti, experience and reasoning; why should it be improper ?
57. There is no use entering into a controversy with the unreasonable Logicians. The fact is that the difference between Jiva and Kutastha is caused by illusion.
58. People who consider themselves scholars and the hair-splitting logicians overlook the authority of the Veda and wander due to their imperfect reasoning.
59. Some others accept the authority of the Vedas; but owing to their inability to harmonise the meaning of the texts which have gone before with those that follow, they become confused. They take some isolated passages out of context and quote them in support of their own views.
60. The materialists (Lokayatas) and vulgar persons depending on false perceptual evidence, regard the aggregate beginning with the Kutastha and ending in gross body as the Atman.
61. To support their materialist views, they quote some passages from the Shruti to show that the gross body is the Atman, which is the doctrine of Virochana.
62. There are other thinkers who point out that the body dies and decays when life leaves it. They conclude that the Atman is something other than the gross body.
63. There are others who think that in such expressions as ‘I am speaking’, the senses together with the intellect are seen to be distinct from the gross body and that therefore they are the Atman.
64. In the Shruti we hear of the senses, such as speech and so forth, quarrelling among themselves, which implies that they have consciousness. Therefore some thinkers have concluded that the senses are the Atman.
65. The followers of the school of Hiranyagarbha hold the vital airs (Pranas) to be the Atman. They point out that when the eye and other senses are inoperative the vital airs still continue to function, keeping the man alive.

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