Paingala Upanishad---2

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II-1. Now Paingala asked Yajnavalkya: How did the omnipotent Lord of all worlds, the author of their manifestation, sustenance and dissolution become Jiva ?
II-2. Yajnavalkya replied: I shall speak distinguishing between the forms of the Jiva and of God, following the generation of the gross, subtle and causal bodies. Listen with exclusive attention. Employing parts of quintuplicated gross elements, the Lord made individual and collective gross, bodies, respectively. Earthy are the skull, skin, intestines, bones, flesh and nails. Watery are the blood, urine, saliva, perspiration and so forth. Fiery are hunger, thirst, heat, lassitude, sexual union, etc. Airy are the movements, the transporting, breathing, etc. Ethereal are lust, anger, etc. The gross body with skin, etc.; is a combination of all this, fashioned through deeds; (it is) the basis of states like childhood, etc., conceit and numerous failings.
II-3. Then he (God) manifested Prana (the Principle of life) from the non-quintuplicated aggregate of the three Rajas parts of the gross elements. The modification of the life principle are the Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana. The subordinate functions of Prana are named Naga, Kurma, Krikara, Devadatta and Dhananjaya. Their bases are the heart, the anus, navel, throat and all the limbs. With the fourth part of the Rajas of Akasa, he manifested the organ of action. Its functions are (performed by) the tongue, the hands, the feet, the anus and the generative organ. The objects of these are speech, grasping, movement, excretion and (sex) enjoyment. Similarly from the aggregate of the three Sattva parts of the elements, he manifested the inner organ. Its functions are the mind, the intellect, thought and the ego. The objects of these are imagination, determination, memory, conceit and investigation. Their bases are the throat, the mouth, the navel, the heart and the junction of the eye-brows. With the fourth part of the Sattva of the elements, he manifested the sense of Cognition. Its functions are the ears, the skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nose. Their objects are sound, touch, form, taste and smell.
The overlords of the organs (of perception and action) are the directions, the wind, the sun, Prachetas, Asvins, Fire, Indra, Upendra, Death, the moon, Vishnu, Brahma and Sambhu.
II-4. Now, there are five sheaths, that of food, of vital breaths, of mind, of knowledge and of bliss. The sheath of food comes into being from the essence of food alone, develops by it, and is dissolved in the earth that is predominantly of the nature of food. That alone is the gross body. The five breaths, Prana, etc.; together with the five organs of actions constitute the sheath of vital breaths. The sheath of mind is the mind together with the organs of cognition. The sheath of knowledge is the intellect together with the organs of cognition. These three sheaths constitute the subtle body. The sheath of bliss is the knowledge of one’s essence. This is the causal body.
II-5. The eight-fold city (the total subtle body) consists of the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the five breaths, the five elements like ether, etc., the five-fold inner organ, desire, action and Tamas.
II-6. Vishva (is) the self of knowledge, a reflection of sat, the empirical (being), having conceit in the gross body of the waking state. The field of actions (or born of actions) is also a name of Vishva.
II-7. By God’s command, the Sutratman (Hiranyagarbha) entered the subtle body of the individual and supervising the mind became the Taijasa. Taijasa is the appearance. Dream fashioned is a name of Taijasa.
II-8. By God’s command (the Self) with the adjunct of Maya together with the Unmanifest, entering the individual causal body became Prajna. The Prajna is undifferentiated, real, ‘Having conceit-in-deep-sleep’ is the name of Prajna.
II-9. Texts like Tattvamasi declare the identity with Brahman of the real Jiva concealed by ignorance and part of the unmanifest; not of the other two, the empirical and the illusory Jivas (in the waking and dream-state).
II-10. The Consciousness reflected in the inner organ participated in the three states. Merged in the states of wakefulness, dream and deep sleep, like a chain of buckets attached to the water wheel, and afflicted, he (the Jiva) is as it were born and dead.
II-11. Now there are five states – Wakefulness, dream, deep sleep, swoon and death. The wakeful state consists in the cognition of objects like sound, etc.; by means of the organs of cognition like ears, etc.; when aided by the respective (guardian) deities. The Jiva stationed at the junction of the eye-brows and pervading the whole (body) from the foot to the head becomes the agent of all kinds of activities like tilling and heaving. Also the reaper of their respective fruits. Migrating to the other world(s) alone he reaps the fruit of (his) activities. Tired due to activities, like an emperor, he takes to the way leading to the inner chamber (a new body).
II-12. When the instruments of (cognition and action) cease to operate, the dream state comes into being in which there is knowledge of objects and their cognition due to the half-awakened impressions of the waking state. There, Vishva himself, due to the cessation of empirical activities, moving in the system of nerves and becoming Taijasa, enjoys freely the rarity of the world consisting of latent impressions which he illumines with his light.