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As we may be well aware there are differing approaches given by different Acharyas (Teachers). It could be seen as spokes of a wheel which start of from different position in the circumference but meet at the hub. Also the analogy of a mountain top with different approaches and the view from the very same approach at different points on the climb is different. Sankara's view is that Atman or individual Soul is non different from Ishwara in essence and the difference is only of Upadhi or superimposition. He has elaborately established it in his various commentaries and most notable examples are the Mahavakyas or (great utterences) statements from Vedas. One of them is Ayam Atman Brahaman (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5) or this Atman is (non other than) Brahaman. He has treated this subject in detail in his commentary on Gita too. As regards Knowledge Lord Krishna gives the definition in Chapter 13 verse 3 and the commentaries of Acharyas is given in the link.

Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:

ksetra-jñam capi mam viddhi
sarva-ksetresu bharata
ksetra-ksetrajñayor jñanam
yat taj jñanam matam mama

Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:

kṣetra-jñam — the knower of the field; ca — also; api — certainly; mām — Me; viddhi — know; sarva — all; kṣetreṣu — in bodily fields; bhārata — O son of Bharata; kṣetra — the field of activities (the body); kṣetra-jñayoḥ — and the knower of the field; jñānam — knowledge of; yat — that which; tat — that; jñānam — knowledge; matam — opinion; mama — My.

And know Me also as the Field-Knower in all Fields, O Bharata (Arjuna). The knowledge of the Field and its knower is, in My view, the true knowledge.