Brahma Sutra, Part --8

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36. As a matter of fact, a person standing in between two stages is also entitled, such cases being met with (in the Upanishads).
37. Moreover, the Smritis also mention this fact.
38. And (in their case) there can be the favour of special factors (like Japa etc.,).
39. But as compared with this, the other one is better, because of indicatory sign (in the Upanishad and Smritis) as well.
Topic-10: Defection from Monasticism
40. But for one who has become so, there can be no reversion from it, on account of restriction, absence of text sanctioning reversion and absence of good precedence. This is the view of Jaimini as well.
Topic-11: Expiation for Transgression of Celibacy
41. And even an expiation is not available for him, since his fall is known from the Smriti to be irremediable and he has no connection with it.
42. Some, however, consider this to be a minor sin and concede expiation as in a case of eating forbidden food. So it is explained by Jaimini.
Topic-12: They are to be Excommunicated
43. (Whether their transgression constitutes a major or a minor sin), they are to be kept outside in either case in accordance with Smriti texts and behaviour of good people.
Topic-13: Meditations Connected with Rites
44. The teacher Atreya thinks that the agentship for meditation belongs to the master of the sacrifice, since the Upanishads mention their results.
45. The (teacher) Audulomi says that it is the duty of the priest (to undertake such meditations), for he is retained for that.
46. And from Vedic texts also (this stands confirmed).
Topic-14: Injunction about Meditativeness
47. In case of a partial application to knowledge by one possessed of (imperfect) knowledge, an injunction is implied in another auxiliary which is the third; this is like the main injunction being applied to the subsidiary acts.
48. But the conclusion is made (in the Chandogya Upanishad) with the householder, since he has an all-inclusive life.
49. Since there is injunction even about the others, just as much as of meditativeness.
Topic-15: The Childlike State
50. (The word ‘balya’ in the Brihadaranyaka means that a man of enlightenment should behave like a child) without displaying his parts, for so it fits in with the context.
Topic-16: Time of Fruition of Knowledge
51. The generation of knowledge takes place even in this life if there is no obstruction to the means adopted. For this is what is revealed (by the Upanishads).
Topic-17: Liberation is Uniform Everywhere
53. There is no rule of this kind with regard to the result called liberation, because that state has been definitely determined (to be the same), because that state has been definitely determined (to be the same).

CHAPTER - IV
PHALA – RESULT

SECTION - I
Topic-1: Repetition of Meditations etc.
1. Repetition is necessary, since the Upanishads instruct repeatedly.
2. And (this is so) on account of the indicatory mark.
Topic-2: Identity of the Self with Brahman
3. But the Upanishads acknowledge Brahman as the Self and cause It to be so understood.
Topic-3: No Self-identity with Symbols
4. (The aspirant is) not to identify (himself) with a symbol, for he cannot understand himself to be so.
Topic-4: Superimposition of the Higher on the Lower
5. The sun etc., are to be looked upon as Brahman because of the consequent exaltation.
Topic-5: Subordinate parts of Rites As the Sun etc.
6. And the ideas of the sun etc., are surely to be superimposed on the subsidiary parts of the rites, for that is reasonably maintainable.
Topic-6: Meditation in a Sitting Posture
7. One should adore mentally while having a sitting posture, since it is possible in that way alone.
8. And because of (the possibility of) concentration (in that way).
9. And (meditativeness is attributed) from the standpoint of motionlessness.
10. Moreover, they mention (this) in the Smritis.
Topic-7: No Restriction of Place
11. Meditation is to be undertaken wherever the mind gets concentrated, because there is no specification.
Topic-8: Meditation till Death
12. (Meditation is to be repeated) up till the moment of death, for it is noticed in the scriptures that it is done so even then.
Topic-9: Knowledge Destroys all Results of Actions
13. On the realization of That, there occur the non-attachment and destruction of the subsequent and previous sins respectively, because it is declared so.
Topic-10: No Remnant of Virtue Even
14. In the very same way there is no attachment of the other (ie., of virtue) as well. Liberation must follow as soon as the body falls.
Topic-11: Past Accumulated Results are Destroyed
15. But only those past (virtues and vices) get destroyed which have not begun to bear fruit, for death is set as the limit of waiting for liberation.
Topic-12: Agnihotra etc.
16. But Agnihotra etc., conduce to the very same result, for so it is revealed (in the Upanishads).
17. Besides these, there is also another kind of (good) action with regard to which some people (make the assignment), according to both Jaimini and Badarayana.
Topic-13: Rites Unaccompanied by Meditation
18. The Upanishadic text, “whatever is done with knowledge” surely indicates this.
Topic-14: Experience of the Active Merit and Demerit
19. But the (enlightenment) man merges in Brahman after exhausting the other two, (viz., merit and demerit that have started fruition), by experiencing (their results in the present life).

SECTION - II
Topic-1: At Death the Organs Merge in Mind
1. The (function) of the organ of speech merges in the mind (at the time of death) for so it is seen and so the Upanishads say.
2. And for the same reason all the functions of all the organs get merged in the mind.
Topic-2: Mind Merges in Prana
3. That mind merges in the vital force as is revealed in the subsequent text.
Topic-3: Prana Merges into the soul
4. That one (ie., the vital force) is (known to be) withdrawn into the ruler (ie., the individual Self) from such facts as approaching that (Self at the time of death).
5. The soul comes to stay among the elements, it being so declared by the Upanishads.
6. (The soul does) not (come to stay) amidst a single element, for both (the Upanishads and Smritis) show otherwise.
Topic-4: Departure of the Enlightened and the Unenlightened
7. And the mode of departure (at the time of death) is the same (for the knower of the qualified Brahman and the ignorant man) up to the beginning of the path (of the gods); and the immortality (that is spoken of) is the one that is attained without burning ignorance.
Topic-5: Relative Merger of Fire etc.
8. That group of elements (counting from fire) continues till complete liberation; for there is a declaration of the continuance of the transmigratory state till then.
9. That fire (as also other elements) is minute in its nature, as also in size, because it is seen to be so.
10. For this (very) reason the subtle body is not destroyed even when the gross one is.
11. And this warmth belongs to this subtle body to be sure, for that stands to reason.
Topic-6: No Departure for a Knower of Brahman
12. If it be contended that the organs of the man of knowledge do not depart from the body because of the denial in the scripture, then (according to the opponent) it is not so, for the denial is about the departure from the individual soul.
13. This is not so, for in case of the followers of one recension there is a clear denial of the soul’s departure.
14. And the Smriti also says so.
Topic-7: the Organs of the Knower Merge in Brahman
15. Those organs get merged in the supreme Brahman, for such is the declaration of the Upanishad.
Topic-8: Absolute Absorption of the Constituents
16. (Absolute) non-distinction (with Brahman comes about) on the authority of the scriptural declaration.
Topic-9: Departure of one who knows the Qualified Brahman
17. (When the soul of the man who has realized the qualified Brahman is about to depart), there occurs an illumination of the top of the heart. Having that door illumined by that light, the soul, under the favour of Him who resides in the heart, departs through the hundred and first nerve, owing to the efficacy of the knowledge and the appropriateness of the constant thought about the course which is a part of that knowledge.
Topic-10: The Soul follows the Rays of the Sun
18. (The soul of the man of knowledge) proceeds by following the rays of the sun.
19. If it be argued that the soul departing at night can have no progress along the rays, then it is not so, since the connection between the nerve and the rays continues as long as the body lasts; and this is revealed in the Upanishad.
Topic-11: Soul’s Journey during the Sun’s Southern Course
20. For the very same reason (the soul gets the result of knowledge) even when departing during the sun’s southern course.
21. And these times etc., are mentioned in the Smriti for the Yogins; and these (paths of) Samkhya and Yoga are mentioned in the Smritis and not the Vedas.

SECTION - III
Topic-1: Only One Path to the World of Brahman
1. The soul travels along the path starting from flame, that being well known.
Topic-2: The Departing Soul Reaches Air after Year
2. The soul of the knower of the qualified Brahman goes from the year to air, on account of the absence and presence of specification.
Topic-3: The Soul proceeds from Lightning to Varuna
3. Varuna is to be placed after lightning, because of their connection with water (ie., cloud).
Topic-4: Guiding Deities
4. (Flame etc., are) conducting deities, owing to the indicative mark to that effect.
5. Because that stands established on account of both (the traveller and the path) being then unconscious.
6. From there they are guided by the very same being who comes to lightning; for it is of him that the Upanishad speaks.
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