Brahma Sutra, Part --7

madan_gautam's picture



Average: 3 (5 votes)

E-Text Source: www.celextel.org
Topic-24: Satya-Brahman in Brihadaranyaka
38. Since the same Satya-Vidya is taught in both the places (of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad), therefore traits like Satya have to be combined.
Topic-25: Combination of Traits in Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya
39. Traits like (true) desire etc., (mentioned in the Chandogya) are to be added to the other (viz., Brihadaranyaka) and those mentioned there are to be added here, because of the (sameness of) abode etc.
Topic-26: Agnihotra to Prana
40. There can be no omission (of the performance of the Agnihotra to Prana) on account of the respect shown (in the Upanishad).
41. The Agnihotra is to be performed from that (food) itself when it is present, for such is the declaration (of the Upanishad).
Topic-27: Meditations Connected with Rites Are Not Obligatory
42. There is no obligatory rule about that (ie., the meditations becoming connected always with rites), for that is obvious from the Upanishad, inasmuch as a meditation has a separate result, consisting in the elimination of hindrance to a rite.
Topic-28: Meditations on Prana and Vayu
43. (The meditations on Prana and Vayu or Air are to be kept apart) exactly as in the case of offerings, as that has been stated by Jaimini.
Topic-29: Fires in Agni-Rahasya Not Parts of Sacrifice
44. The fires (of the mind, speech, etc., of Agni-rahasya) do not form parts of any rite, on account of the abundance of indicatory marks; for these marks are stronger than the context. That also was said by Jaimini.
45. On the strength of the context, the conceptual fires are to be used alternatively for the actual fire enjoined earlier. They constitute some rite like the imaginary drinking (of Soma juice).
46. And (this conclusion is supported) by the fact of extended application.
47. The fires rather constitute only a meditation, for so it is determined (in the Vedas).
48. And owing to the indicatory mark met with.
49. Moreover, the view (that the fires constitute a meditation) cannot be set aside owing to the greater authority of express statement etc.,
50. On account of being linked up with the mind and such other reasons, the mental fires are independent even as other meditations are. And it is seen that the sacrifices are treated as independent (irrespective of their context), as was pointed out by Jaimini.
51. Not even on the ground of similarity can the mental fires become subservient to rites, since they are noticed to serve human needs, just as it is in the case of death; for the world does not become fire just because of a similarity.
52. From the subsequent Brahmana text also it is known that the scripture has that (prescription of a meditation) in view; but the connection with fire occurs because of the abundance of the attributes of fire that have to be imagined here.
Topic-30: The Self Distinct from Body
53. Some deny the existence of the soul, its existence being dependent on the existence of the body.
54. But this is not so; there is a distinction (between the soul and the body) because consciousness may not exist even when the body exists, as it is in the case of perception.
Topic-31: Meditations Connected with Accessories of Rites
55. But the meditations connected with the accessories of rites are not to be confined to the branches of the Vedas in which they obtain, for they are to be adopted in all the (branches of the) Vedas.
56. Or rather (they are to be adopted in other branches) like the mantas; (and thus) there is no contradiction.
Topic-32: Meditation on Vaisvanara as a Whole
57. The meditation on the whole is of greater importance just as in the case of sacrifices. For so the Upanishad shows.
Topic-33: When Meditations Differ
58. The meditations are different when there is a difference in terminology etc.
Topic-34: Alternative Meditations
59. Any one meditation (can be accepted as) an alternative for other meditations, because their result is the same.
Topic-35: Meditations Yielding Worldly Results
60. As for the meditations (based on symbols and) undertaken for fulfilment of worldly desires, they may be either combined or not combined according to one’s option, since the previous reason (of sameness of result) does not exist.
Topic-36: Meditations Based on Subsidiaries
61. In the case of the meditations based on the subsidiaries (of rites), their position is the same as of their bases.
62. (The meditations are to be combined), also because they are enjoined (in the Vedas).
63. (The meditations are to be combined) because of the (indicatory mark of the) rectification (of one with the help of another).
64. And from the Upanishadic declaration that Om, which is a accessory of the Vedic rites is common to all the Vedas, (it follows that the meditations based on it must co-exist).
65. (The meditations are) rather not to be combined, since the Upanishads do not declare this.
66. And (there is no obligation about combination) since the Upanishad shows (contrariwise).
SECTION - IV
Topic-1: Knowledge not a Subsidiary of Rites
1. Badarayana thinks that liberation results from this (knowledge of the Self), (as presented in the Upanishads), because the Vedic texts declare so.
2. Jaimini thinks that since the Self holds a subservient position in rites etc., the mention of the result of knowledge is (merely) in glorification of the agent, as is the case elsewhere.
3. (This is confirmed) on the strength of what is revealed about the behaviour (of the knowers of Brahman).
4. (This is so) because the Upanishad declares this.
5. (This is so), because both knowledge and work follow the Self (when it transmigrates).
6. (And this is so) because rites are enjoined for one who is possessed of that (knowledge of the Vedas).
7. And (this follows) from the restrictive texts.
8. But Badarayana’s view stands unshaken because of the instruction that the supreme Self is even greater (than the agent); for so it is revealed (by the Upanishads).
9. But the Upanishadic declaration (of conduct) is equally in evidence (proving that knowledge is not subservient to religious acts).
10. The declaration is not universal.
11. Knowledge and action are to be divided like a hundred things.
12. (Engagements in religious actions is prescribed) for him only who has merely recited the Vedas.
13. (The restrictive texts) do not apply (to the man of knowledge), since the restrictions is made without any specification.
14. Or rather the consent (accorded) for doing religious acts is meant for the glorification of knowledge.
15. Moreover, some refrain from (religious) work according to personal predilection.
16. Moreover, (from knowledge comes) the destruction (of the whole world).
17. And knowledge belongs to the monks, for they are met with in the Vedas.
Topic-2: Sannyasa Prescribed by Scriptures
18. Jaimini thinks that to be an allusion to other stages and no injunction; and (this is so) since the scripture condemns them.
19. Badarayana thinks that the other orders of life are also to be observed, since Vedic texts speak equally of all the stages of life.
20. Or rather it is an injunction as in the case of holding the sacrificial fuel.
Topic-3: Injunctions for Meditation Not Eulogistic
21. If it be contended that texts (about Udgitha etc.) are merely eulogistic, because of having been accepted as subservient to ritual acts, then not so, because of the extra-ordinariness (of the texts).
22. Moreover, (there must be injunctions) on account of the occurrence of words having an injunctional meaning.
Topic-4: Upanishadic Stories
23. If it be argued that they (the Upanishadic stories) are meant for the (ritualistic application called) Pariplava, (we say) that this not so, on account of the stories for the Pariplava having been specified.
24. And because (the stories) become connected (with meditations) through unity of idea in that way, (therefore they are meant for illuminating the proximate knowledge).
Topic-5: Sannyasins Free from Rituals
25. For that very reason again, (the Sannyasin has) no need of “lightning fire”, and such other rites.
Topic-6: Rituals etc., Needed for Knowledge
26. On the strength of the Upanishadic sanction of sacrifices etc., all religious activities as well are necessary. This is the same as in the case of a horse (in matters of its adequacy).
27. (Even though there be no injunction about sacrifices etc.,), still one must be endowed with self-control and the like, since these are enjoined as subsidiaries of knowledge; and hence have to be practised as a matter of course.
Topic-7: Restrictions about Food
28. All kinds of food are permitted only when life is in danger; for so it is revealed.
29. And (this should be the interpretation) so that the scriptures (about permissible and forbidden food) may not be contradicted.
30. Moreover, the Smritis support this view.
31. Hence also occur the scriptural texts prohibiting license.
Topic-8: Duties of Orders of Life should be Fulfilled
32. At the same time the duties of the orders of life are to be performed (by one who does not want liberation), since these have been enjoined.
33. And (these have to be performed, since these are enjoined as) being jointly the generators of knowledge.
34. Considered either way, however, the very same religious duties are meant for performance, because of the indicatory marks of both kinds.
35. The Vedas also show that one (equipped with Brahmacharya etc.,) is not overpowered.
Topic-9: Knowledge for People outside Orders
36. As a matter of fact, a person standing in between two stages is also entitled, such cases being met with (in the Upanishads).