Brahma Sutra, Part --5

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Topic-1: Origin of the pranas
1. Similarly the organs (are produced from the supreme Self).
2. (Origin of the organs has to be accepted) because of the impossibility of (the text about origin having) the secondary sense.
3. Also because that term, (“is born”), is used earlier (in the primary sense) in the Upanishad (in connection with Prana).
4. (Pranas must have originated from Brahman) since speech is preceded by them.
Topic-2: Number of Pranas
5. The pranas are seven in number because of being so known and because of such a specification.
6. But the hands etc., are there; since (an excess is) established thus, therefore it is not so.
Topic-3: Atomic Pranas
7. And the organs are atomic (ie., subtle and limited in size).
Topic-4: Chief Prana: Its Creation
8. So also the foremost (Prana is a product of Brahman).
Topic-5: Nature of Prana
9. Prana is neither air nor a function, because it is taught separately.
10. But Prana is not independent just like the organs of vision etc., because instruction is impared along with them and because of other reasons.
11. No fault accrues, because Prana is not a sense-organ. For thus it is shown in the Upanishads.
12. It is taught that Prana has five states like the mind.
Topic-6: Prana Is Atomic
13. And the chief Prana is atomic (ie., subtle and limited in size).
Topic-7: Presiding Deities
14. But there is the (fact of) presiding over by (the deities) Fire and others, for so it is taught in the scriptures.
15. (The organs are) connected with the possessor of the organs, as is known from the Vedic texts.
16. And on account of that soul’s constant relation (with the body).
Topic-8: Prana and Pranas
17. As distinguished from the chief Prana, the other pranas (eleven in number) are the organs, for they are so designated.
18. Because of the (mention of) difference in the Upanishads.
19. And (the organs are different from Prana) because of the dissimilarity in characteristics.
Topic-9: Creation of Gross Objects
20. The arrangement of designation and shape, however, is by Him who made the elements tripartite, for it is taught (in the Upanishad).
21. Flesh etc., are produced from earth as it is shown in the Upanishads. From the other two as well (evolve other things).
22. But owing to the preponderance (of any one) occurs the corresponding designation, occurs the corresponding designation.
Topic-1: Departure from the Body
1. In the matter of obtaining the next one (ie., body), the individual soul moves out enveloped (by the subtle elements), for so it is known from the question and its solution.
2. But the soul is not enveloped by water alone, since water has three components; water is mentioned because of its pre-ponderance.
3. And from the going out of the organs (it follows that the elements also move out).
4. If it be objected (that the organs do not accompany the soul at the time of death) since the Upanishadic texts mention their entry into the (deities) Fire and others, then we say, not so, for that is said in a secondary sense.
5. If it be objected (that water does not come to be known as man), since it is not heard of in the first instance, then not so, for on logical grounds, water itself is meant.
6. If it be argued (that the soul does not depart enveloped by water) since it is not mentioned thus in the Upanishads, then not so, for it is perceived to be so in the case of those who perform sacrifices etc., (ie., it can be verified by what happens to the sacrificers).
7. Or rather the statement (that the souls become the food of gods) is made in a metaphorical sense on account of their non-realization of the Self. For the Upanishad shows the same.
Topic-2: Return of the Souls
8. After the actions are exhausted, the soul returns together with (the residual) karma, as is known from the Upanishads and Smritis, along the path followed (by it) while going as also differently.
9. If it be contended that (the soul gets its rebirth) owing to conduct (and not residual karma), then according to Karsnajini, it is not so, that (Upanishadic passage) being used suggestively (for residual karma).
10. If it be objected that (in that case) conduct will cease to have any usefulness, then it is not so, because karma is dependent on that conduct.
11. But (the teacher) Badari thinks that good and bad works themselves are meant (by the word carana).
Topic-3: Fate of Evil-doers
12. It is known from the Vedic texts that (the moon is the goal) even for the performers of unholy acts etc., as well.
13. (Vedantin): But as for others (they have their descent) after suffering in the abode of Death; (thus occur their) ascent and descent, for their course is met with in the Upanishads.
14. And they mention this in the Smritis.
15. And (they are mentioned as) seven (hells in the Puranas).
16. Since Death’s control extends even there, no contradiction can arise.
17. But (by the expression “of these two paths”) what is meant is “of knowledge (ie., meditation) and action”, for that is the topic under discussion.
18. (The specification about the number of oblations) is not applicable in the case of the third state, this being noticeable (in the Upanishad).
19. Moreover, there are records in the Smritis (of birth without parentage) as also in the Mahabharata etc., and there is popular belief as well.
20. Moreover, it is seen (that creatures are born without the five oblations).
21. Life springing from moisture is included in the third term (plant life).
Topic-4: Similarity with Space etc., during Descent
22. (The descending soul) attains similarity (with space, air, etc.,); for that is reasonable.
Topic-5: Intervening Period of Descent
23. (The descent of the soul from one state to another takes place) not after long intervals, (as is known) on the authority of a specific statement (in the Upanishad).
Topic-6: The Souls in Plants and Thereafter
24. As in the earlier stages, so also (in the later stages) the soul merely resides in paddy etc., that are already inhabited by other souls, for so it is declared.
25. If it be argued that rites (invoking killing of animals) are unholy, we say, no, since they are sanctioned by scriptures.
26. Then (the soul) gets connected with an inseminator.
27. From the womb (comes) a new body (for the descending soul).
Topic-1: Dream State
1. In the intermediate stage (of dream) occurs (real) creation; for the Upanishad says so.
2. And some (following a particular branch) consider the Self to be a creator (of things desired); and sons and others (are the objects desired).
3. But the dream creation is a mere Maya, because of its nature of not being a complete manifestation of the totality of attributes (found in the wakeful state).
4. A dream is also an omen, for so it is known from the Upanishads and experts say so.
5. From the meditation on the supreme Lord, however, becomes manifest that which remains obscured; because the soul’s bondage and freedom are derived from Him.
6. Or rather that covering occurs also on account of connection with the body.
Topic-2: The Soul in Deep Sleep
7. The absence of that dream (ie., dreamless sleep) takes place in the nerves and the Self, as it is known to be so from the Upanishads.
8. For the same reason, the soul’s waking up is from this supreme Self.
Topic-3: The Same Soul Returns from Sleep
9. But the very same soul returns from sleep because of the reasons of action, remembrance, scriptural authority and injunction.
Topic-4: Soul in swoon
10. In the case of one in swoon, there is only partial attainment (of the state of sleep), that being the last alternative.
Topic-5: The Nature of Brahman
11. Not even according to place can Brahman have a twofold characteristic, for everywhere (It is taught to be without attributes).
12. If it be argued that (Brahman cannot have only one characteristic), on account of differences (met with in the scriptures), (we say that) it is not so, because the scriptures negate each of these differences individually.
13. Moreover, the followers of certain branches declare thus.
14. Brahman is only formless to be sure, for that is the dominant note (of the Upanishadic teaching).
15. And like light, Brahman can (be assumed to) have different appearances, so that the scriptures may not become purportless.
16. The Upanishad also declares Brahman to be Consciousness alone.
17. Moreover, the Vedas reveal this; likewise this is mentioned in the Smritis also.
18. Hence also are the illustrations of the sun’s reflection etc.
19. But that kind of parallelism is inapplicable as nothing is perceived to be similar to water.
20. Since Brahman has entered into the limiting adjuncts, It seems to participate in their increase and decrease. The illustration is apt since the illustration and thing illustrated have propriety from this point of view.
21. And (this is also) in accordance with (the Vedic) revelation.
Topic-6: Unconditioned Brahman and Soul
22. The Upanishad certainly denies the limitation that is being dealt with and then speaks of something more.
23. That Brahman is unmanifest, for the Upanishad says so.
24. Moreover, Brahman is realized in Samadhi, as is known from direct revelation and inference.
25. And the effulgent Self appears to be different during activity, as is the case with light etc.; yet (intrinsically) there is non-difference as is evident from repetition (of “That thou art”).

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