Brahma Sutra, Part --4

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33. (The Jaina view is) not right since the presence (of contradictory attributes) in one and the same thing is impossible.
34. Similarly also (arises the defect of) the soul having no all-pervasiveness (or having only a medium dimension).
35. And the contradiction cannot be avoided even by an assumption of sequence (in the increase and decrease of parts), for still there will be the defects of mutability etc.
36. The ultimate size attainable (by the soul) being permanent, the other two sizes also must be so; and hence there will be no distinction (among the sizes).
Topic-7: God Is Not a Mere Superintendent
37. For the Lord there can be no creatorship, for that leads to incongruity.
38. And (the incongruity arises) because of the impossibility of a relationship.
39. And (the position is untenable) because of the impossibility of (Nature) coming under (His) direction. (Or) And (God cannot be proved), since no physical support (adhisthana) is possible for Him.
40. Should it be argued that God will direct Nature like (a man directing) the organs, then it cannot be so, for that will result in God’s having experiences (of happiness, sorrow etc.). (Or) If a body, equipped with sense-organs, be assumed for God, (we say that) this is not possible; because of (consequent) experiences etc.
41. God will be subject to finitude or loss of omniscience.
Topic-8: Bhagavata View Refuted
42. (The Bhagavata view that Samkarsana and others originate successively from Vasudeva and others is wrong), since any origin (for the soul) is impossible.
43. And (this view is wrong because) an implement cannot originate from its agent (who wields it).
44. Alternatively even if (it be assumed that Vasudeva and others are) possessed of knowledge, (majesty etc.,), still the defect cannot be remedied.
45. Besides, (in this scripture) many contradictions are met with and it runs counter to the Vedas.

SECTION - III
Topic-1: Origin of Space
1. Space is not (a created thing), since this is not heard of in (some of) the Upanishads.
2. But there is (a mention of the origin of space).
3. (The Upanishadic passage about creation of space has) a secondary sense, for real creation is impossible.
4. And (this is borne out) by Vedic texts.
5. And it is possible for the same word (“originated”) to have (primary and secondary senses) like the word Brahman.
6. The (Vedic) assertion (that “all things become known when the one is known”) can remain unaffected only if all the effects are non-different from Brahman; and this is confirmed by Vedic texts.
7. But (space is a product); for separateness persists wherever there is an effect, as it is seen in the world.
Topic-2: Origin of Air
8. Hereby is explained air.
Topic-3: Origin of Brahman Denied
9. But (origin) for Existence (Brahman) is impossible on account of illogicality.
Topic-4: Origin of Fire
10. Fire originates from this one (ie., air); for the Upanishad says so.
Topic-5: Origin of Water
11. Water (was born from this fire).
Topic-6: Origin of Earth
12. (The word “food” means) earth on the strength of the topic, colour and other Vedic texts.
Topic-7: Creation from God’s Deliberation
13. It is He only, who through profound meditation on each thing (created it), as is known from His indicatory marks.
Topic-8: Reverse Order of Dissolution
14. But as compared with this order of creation, the order of dissolution proceeds in a reverse way. This is logical too.
Topic-9: The Origin of Mind and Intellect
15. If it be contended that the intellect and mind must find accommodation in some order in some intermediate stage, because indicatory marks of their existence are in evidence, then not so, because their presence creates no difference (ie., does not disturb the order of creation or dissolution).
Topic-10: Birth and Death
16. The mention of birth and death must be in the primary sense in relation to the moving and the motionless; in relation to the soul it must be in a secondary sense, the application (of such words) being possible when a body is present.
Topic-11: Origin of the Soul
17. The individual soul has no origin; because the Upanishads do not mention this, because its eternality is known from them and (because of other reasons).
Topic-12: Eternally Conscious Soul
18. The soul is eternally a cognizer for this very reason (of being free from origin and dissolution).
Topic-13: Soul’s Dimensions
19. (The individual soul must be atomic in dimension owing to the mention in the Vedas) of its departure from the body, going (to the next world by following a course) and coming back (from there).
20. (The soul’s atomicity stands confirmed) owing to the relation of one’s own soul with the latter two facts (viz., following of a course and coming back).
21. If it be objected that the soul is not atomic because its size is heard of as not being so, we reply, no, since that context relates to the other (ie., the supreme Self).
22. And the individual soul is atomic because of the direct Upanishadic use of the word as well as mention of infinitesimality.
23. (The soul’s atomicity and its feeling over the whole body involve) no contradiction, just as in the case (of a drop) of sandal paste.
24. If it be objected that (the argument holds good in the case of sandal paste) owing to its peculiarity of position, (but that is not evident in the case of the soul), then we say, no, (a peculiar location) for the soul is admitted in the Upanishads, for it exists in the heart.
25. Or on the analogy of what is seen in the world, (the soul may pervade the whole body) through its attribute (of sentience).
26. (The quality of sentience can have) separate existence like smell.
27. And the Upanishad also show this.
28. (The soul and its intelligence are separate), since they are taught separately (in the Upanishads).
29. But the soul comes to have such appellations because of the dominance of the modes of that intellect; this is just as in the case of the supreme Self.
30. And because the contact between the soul and the intellect persists so long as the worldly state of the soul continues, there can be no defect, for this is what is met with in the scriptures.
31. Rather because that contact (with the intellect etc.,) which remains latent (in sleep and dissolution) can become manifest (during waking and creation) like manhood etc., (from boyhood etc.,).
32. Else (if the existence of the internal organ be not admitted) there will be the possibility of either constant perception or non-perception or it will have to be admitted that either of the powers (of the soul or of the organs) becomes (suddenly) debarred (or delimited or lost).
Topic-14: Soul as Agent
33. The individual soul must be an agent, for thus alone the scriptures become purposeful.
34. (The soul is an agent) because there are teachings about its roaming.
35. (The soul is an agent) because of its taking up (the organs).
36. And the soul is an agent because of the mention (as such) in respect of action; were it not so, there would have been a contrary indication.
37. As in the case of perception (there is no uniformity), so also there is no uniformity (in the case of action).
38. (The soul must be an agent), for (if the intellect be so), it will lead to a reversal of power.
39. And (the soul must be an agent) because (a contrary supposition will) lead to a negation of deep meditation (on God).
Topic-15: The Soul under Two Conditions
40. And (rather) this is like the carpenter existing under both conditions.
Topic-16: Soul’s Agentship Derived from God
41. But the agentship (of the individual soul) is derived from God, for that is what is stated in the Vedic texts.
42. (God is), however, dependent on the efforts made, so that injunctions and prohibitions may not become meaningless and other defects may not arise.
Topic-17: Relation of Soul and God
43. (The individual souls are) parts of God because of the mention that they are different, also because some read otherwise of (Brahman’s) identity with fishermen, slaves, gamblers and others.
44. This follows from the words of the mantras also.
45. And this is also stated in the Smriti (Gita).
46. The Supreme Self is not so (touched by the suffering of the individual soul), even as light etc., are not (affected by the things that condition them).
47. They say so in the Smritis and (the Upanishads declare thus).
48. Injunction and prohibition become effective owing to physical association, just as it is in the case of light etc.
49. And there is no intermixture (of actions and results), since the soul has no connection with all (the bodies).
50. And (the individual soul) is only a reflection (of the supreme Self) to be sure.
51. (Even the unseen potential results of works cannot regulate individual allocation), since the unseen potential results (themselves) cannot be allocated thus.
52. And the same (defect springs up) even in the case of resolves etc.,
53. If it be said that this (individual allocation of pleasure and pain) can be possible in accordance with the separate part (of each soul in each body), then it cannot be so, because of all (the omnipresent souls) getting included in all (the bodies).

SECTION - IV
Topic-1: Origin of the pranas
1. Similarly the organs (are produced from the supreme Self).
2. (Origin of the organs has to be accepted) because of the impossibility of (the text about origin having) the secondary sense.
3. Also because that term, (“is born”), is used earlier (in the primary sense) in the Upanishad (in connection with Prana).
4. (Pranas must have originated from Brahman) since speech is preceded by them.
Topic-2: Number of Pranas
5. The pranas are seven in number because of being so known and because of such a specification.
6. But the hands etc., are there; since (an excess is) established thus, therefore it is not so.

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