Brahma Sutra, Part --2

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SECTION - III
Topic-1: The Abode of Heaven, Earth, etc.
1. The repository of heaven, earth, etc. (is the supreme Self) on account of the word denoting Itself.
2. Because there is the instruction about (Its) attainment by the free.
3. No inferential entity (is the repository), for there is no word of that import.
4. A living creature also is not so.
5. (And) because there is a mention of difference.
6. On account of the context.
7. And on account of the facts of staying on and eating.
Topic-2: Bhuman (Infinite, Plenitude)
8. Bhuman is the supreme Self, since He is taught as superior to samprasada (ie., Prana or vital force).
9. And the characteristics of Bhuman are appropriate (for the supreme Self).
Topic-3: Immutable
10. Akasa is Brahman because of supporting all things up to (and including) space.
11. And that act of supporting is possible for God only, owing to the mention of His mighty rule.
12. And on account of the exclusion from being other entities.
Topic-4: The Object of Seeing
13. From the mention as the object of the act of seeing (iksana), it follows that the supreme Self is mean.
Topic-5: Dahara (The Small Space)
14. The small space (dahara akasa) is Brahman, on account of the subsequent reasons.
15. From the facts of going and the use of the word (Brahma-loka), (it follows that the small Space is Brahman); likewise it is seen in other Upanishads and an indicatory mark is also present.
16. And owing to the fact of holding (the worlds) in place, (the small Space must be God); for this glory is noticed (in other texts) as pertaining to Him.
17. And because of familiar use.
18. If it be argued that the other one (viz., the individual soul) should be the small Space, since it is alluded to (at the end), then not so, for that is impossible.
19. If it be argued that the small Space is the individual soul, because of the subsequent reference to it (in the same chapter), then we say: rather it is spoken of there in its own revealed nature.
20. Moreover, the reference (to the individual soul in the complementary passage) is meant for a different purpose.
21. If it be argued that from the Upanishadic mention of smallness, (the small space must be the individual being), then this has been repudiated earlier.
Topic-6: Acting in Accordance
22. Because of the fact of acting (ie., shining) in accordance and because of the use of the word “His”, (the Light mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad must be Brahman).
23. Moreover, (this aspect) is mentioned in the Smriti.
Topic-7: The Measured One
24. From the term itself it follows that the measured One is the supreme Self.
25. But the size is spoken of from the point of view of existence within the heart, the scripture being concerned with human beings.
Topic-8: Gods
26. Badarayana thinks that beings higher than those (men) (are also qualified for knowledge), for that is possible.
27. If it be objected that this (corporeality of the gods) wilt give rise to a contradiction (in the matter of the gods being associated) in rites, then we reply: Not so, for in the Vedas are noticed the assumption of many bodies.
28. If it be objected that this contradicts the validity of Vedic words, then not so, for the universe arises from this, which fact is proved by direct revelation and inference.
29. And from this very fact follows the eternality (of the Vedas).
30. And there is no contradiction, since similar names and forms are repeated even in the revolution of the world cycles, as is known from the Vedas and the Smriti.
31. Jaimini asserts (that the gods and others have) no competence (for knowledge of Brahman), owing to the impossibility of their competence for Madhu-vidya etc.
32. Because of the occurrence of the words in respect of a sphere of flight.
33. But Badarayana upholds the existence of competence (for the gods); for (the requisite for competence) exists (in them).
Topic-9: Pseudo-Sudra
34. To him (ie., Janasruti) occurred grief on hearing his (ie., swan’s) disparaging utterance, as is evident from his (Janasruti’s) approaching him (Raikva), for this is hinted at (by Raikva by using the word Sudra).
35. And because his Kshatriyahood is known later on from the indicatory mark of his mention along with a descendant of Citraratha.
36. Because purificatory rites are mentioned (for others) and absence of these is declared (for the Sudra).
37. And because (Gautama’s) inclination arose (to initiate and instruct Satyakama) when the absence of the (Sudrahood) had been ascertained.
38. And because the Smriti prohibits for the Sudra the hearing, study and acquisition of the meaning (of the Vedas).
Topic-10: Vibration
39. (Prana is Brahman) because of (the mention of) vibration.
Topic-11: Light as Declared in the Upanishad
40. Light is Brahman, for it is met with as such (in the Upanishad).
Topic-12: Space Is Brahman, Being Different from Name and Form
41. Akasa (Space) is Brahman, because of the declaration of being something different and so on.
Topic-13: Sleep and Death
42. Because of the declaration of being different in sleep and at the time of departure, (the supreme Lord is the subject-matter of teaching).

SECTION - IV
Topic-1: The Inferred Entity
1. If it be said that even the inferred entity (Pradhana) is revealed to the followers of some recension, we say, not so, for the word is cognized as occurring in a simile illustrating the body. And the Upanishad also shows this.
2. Rather the subtle (causal state) is meant (by avyakta), for it deserves that epithet.
3. (Avyakta is not Pradhana) because it is dependent on that (God); (but this avyakta has to be admitted as) it serves some purpose.
4. And because (avyakta is) not mentioned as an entity to be known.
5. If it be argued that the Upanishad does mention Pradhana (by the word avyakta), we say: No, for the conscious Self is understood from the context.
6. And thus there is the presentation of three things alone and the question also is concerned with them.
7. And like Mahat (avyakta does not signify any Samkhya category).
Topic-2: The Bowl
8. (The word aja does not refer to Pradhana), because special characteristics have not been stated as in the case of the bowl.
9. The aja certainly consists of the elements counting from fire, for some read of them as such.
10. And since this is an instruction in the form of an imagery, just as in the case of honey etc., therefore there is no incongruity.
Topic-3: Statement of Number
11. Not even on the strength of the mention of number can Pradhana have Vedic sanction, because the entities are disparate and they involve an excess.
12. The vital force and the rest (are the panchajanah), (as is known) from the complementary passage.
13. For the followers of some recension, the number five has to be made up with light in the absence of food.
Topic-4: Causality
14. (Brahman is presented by all the Upanishads); for as the cause of space and the rest, Brahman is spoken of in all the Upanishads just as It is in any one of them.
15. (Non-existence does not mean void), because of its allusion (to Brahman).
Topic-5: Balaki
16. Because (the word “work” is) indicative of the universe, (He of whom this is the work must be Brahman).
17. If it be contended that the supreme Self is not meant, owing to the presence of the indicatory marks of the individual soul and the chief Prana, then that has already been explained.
18. But Jaimini holds the reference (to the individual soul) to be meant for a different purpose, as is known from the question and the answer. Moreover, some mention this clearly.
Topic-6: Correlation of Passages
19. (The Self to be realized, heard of, reflected on and profoundly meditated upon is the supreme Self), because (this is the meaning gathered) from the correlation of the passages.
20. Asmarathya thinks this (statement of non-difference between the individual soul and supreme Self) to be a sign indicative of the fulfillment of the declaration.
21. Audulomi says that (the statement about the identity of the individual soul and the supreme Self occurs in the beginning) since this state of identity comes to the soul when it departs from the body.
22. Kasakritsna thinks (the statement about the identity in the beginning of the text is in order) because of the existence of the supreme Self as the individual soul.
Topic-7: Brahman as Material Cause
23. Brahman must be the material cause as well, so as not to contradict the proposition and the illustration.
24. This is also understood from the teaching about the wilt to create.
25. And because both (origin and dissolution) are taught directly (from Brahman).
26. (Brahman is the material cause) because of action related to Itself by way of change of form.
27. And because Brahman is declared to be the source (yoni).
Topic-8: Explanation of Everything
28. Hereby all (other theories of the cause of the universe) are explained. They are explained.
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