Brahma Sutra, Part --1

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Brahma Sutra
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta
Topic-1: Deliberation on Brahman
1. Hence (is to be undertaken) thereafter a deliberation on Brahman.
Topic-2: Origin etc., of the Universe
2. That (is Brahman) from which (are derived) the birth etc., of this (universe).
Topic-3: Scripture as Source of Knowledge of Brahman
3. (Brahman is omniscient) because of (Its) being the source of the scriptures. (Or) (Brahman is not known from any other source), since the scriptures are the valid means of Its knowledge.
Topic-4: Upanishads Reveal Brahman
4. But that Brahman (is known from the Upanishads), (It) being the object of their fullest import.
Topic-5: The first Cause Possessed of Consciousness
5. The Pradhana of the Samkhyas is not the cause of the universe, because it is not mentioned in the Upanishads, which fact is clear from the fact of seeing (or thinking).
6. If it be argued that the seeing is in a secondary sense, we say, not so, owing to the use of the word Self.
7. (Pradhana is not the meaning of the word “Self”), because liberation is promised for one who holds on to That.
8. (Pradhana has not been spoken of even indirectly), because there is no subsequent mention of its rejection, and (because that militates against the assertion at the beginning).
9. Because of the merger of the individual into his own Self.
10. Because the knowledge (gathered from the various Upanishads) is the same (as regards Consciousness being the cause).
11. And because (Brahman is) revealed (as such) in the Upanishads.
Topic-6: The Blissful One
12. The Blissful One is the supreme Self on account of repetition.
13. If it be argued that (the Blissful One) is not Brahman, owing to the use of a word (suffix) denoting modification, we say no, for the word is used in the sense of abundance.
14. For the further reason that Brahman is indicated as the source of Bliss.
15. And the very Brahman spoken of in the mantra is declared in the Brahmana (portion explaining the mantra).
16. The other is not the supreme Self, because that is illogical.
17. And because of the assertion of the difference (between the individual soul and the supreme Self).
18. There can be no reliance on inference (for arriving at Pradhana) owing to (the mention of) desire.
19. Moreover, the scripture teaches the absolute identity of this one with this (One).
Topic-7: The Being Inside
20. The Being inside is God, His qualities having been taught.
21. And God is different (from the individual being) owing to the mention of difference.
Topic-8: Space
22. Space (Akasa) is Brahman, for Brahman’s indicatory mark is in evidence.
Topic-9: Prana
23. On that very ground, Prana (is Brahman).
Topic-10: Light
24. Light is Brahman because of the mention of feet.
25. If it be objected that Brahman is not spoken of, because the mention is about a metre, we say, no, for the dedication of the mind is taught in that way; for similar instances are found elsewhere.
26. And this must be so, because this makes possible the representation of all the things etc., as a foot.
27. If it be argued that Brahman (of the earlier text) is not referred to here on account of the difference in the instruction, we say: No, because there is no contradiction in either case.
Topic-11: Pratardana
28. Prana is Brahman, because it is comprehended thus.
29. If it be argued that Prana is not Brahman, since the instruction is about the speaker’s own self, (then we say, no), for here is an abundance of reference to the inmost Self.
30. But the instruction proceeds from a seer’s vision agreeing with scriptures, as in the case of Vamadeva.
31. If it be argued that Brahman is not spoken of here on account of the indications of the individual soul and the chief vital force, then that cannot be so, since this will lead to a threefold meditation. (Besides, Prana) is accepted (elsewhere) as meaning Brahman (because of the presence of Brahman’s characteristics), (and these are) in evidence here.

Topic-1: The Entity Known Everywhere
1. (Brahman is the object to me meditated on), since that which is well known everywhere is taught (here in this Chandogya Upanishad - III-xiv-1,2).
2. And this follows from the fact that the intended qualities are justifiable (in the case of Brahman).
3. And the embodied individual soul is not surely meant, because the qualities do not fit in with it.
4. And because there is reference to the object and subject.
5. Owing to the difference in the (case-endings of the two) words.
6. (This follows) from the Smriti also.
7. If it be objected that the supreme Self is not taught here, because of the smallness of the abode and because of its being referred to as such, then we say: No, for this is done for the sake of contemplation, as is seen in the case of space.
8. If it objected that God will be subject to the experience (of happiness and sorrow as a result of unity), we say, not so, for there is a difference.
Topic-2: The Eater
9. The eater (is God), on account of the appropriation of all that moves and does not move.
10. And (this follows) from the context.
Topic-3: The Two in the Cavity of the Heart
11. The two who have entered into the cavity (of the heart) are the individual Self and the supreme Self, for that is what is seen (in other texts).
12. And because there is a specification.
Topic-4: The Person in the Eye
13. The One inside (is God), for that is logical.
14. And (this follows) from the mention of place etc.
15. And this so for the further reason that the One possessed of bliss is referred to (in the Text, “The One that”).
16. And because the course to be followed by one who has heard the secret teaching is spoken of.
17. None other can be the Person in the eye on account of impermanence and impossibility.
Topic-5: The Internal Ruler
18. The internal Ruler in the divine and other contexts (is the supreme Self), since the characteristics of that (supreme Self) are spoken of.
19. Neither Pradhana, known from the (Samkhya) Smriti, is the internal Ruler, for qualities that do not belong to Pradhana are spoken of.
20. The embodied soul also (is not the internal Ruler); for the followers of both the recensions read of this one as different.
Topic-6: The One That is Unseen etc.
21. The entity, possessed of the qualities of not being seen etc., is Brahman, for Its characteristics are spoken of.
22. And the other two (viz., the individual soul and Pradhana) are not meant, for there is the mention of the distinctive characteristics (of Brahman) and (Its) difference (from the two).
23. And because there is a presentation of form.
Topic-7: Vaisvanara
24. Vaisvanara (the Cosmic Person) is the supreme Lord, for though the (two) words (Self and Vaisvanara) denote many things, they are used specifically.
25. The form referred to in the Smriti is an indicatory mark (that Vaisvanara means the supreme Lord). Hence Vaisvanara is God.
26. If it be objected that Vaisvanara is not the supreme Self because of the word used as well as other factors, and because of residence inside, then we say: not so, because the instruction is to conceive of Brahman as such, because the specification is inapplicable to others and because they mention Him even as a person (Purusha).
27. For these very reasons (Vaisvanara is) neither the deity nor the element.
28. According to Jaimini, there is no contradiction even in case of direct meditation.
29. According to Asmarathya, it is from the point of view of manifestation (that God is referred to as spatially limited).
30. According to Badari (God is spoken of as spatially limited) on account of being meditated on.
31. According to Jaimini, the spatial limitation is (justifiable) because of the meditation based on superimposition; for this is shown (in another text).
32. And they (the followers of the Jabala branch) remember (ie., read of) this One (ie., God) in this place (ie., in between the head and the chin).

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